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دوشنبه 19 تیر‌ماه سال 1391 ساعت 11:29 ب.ظ

Diaphragmatic breathing

مطلب زیر توسط خانم ترانه از شاگردان استاد جمع آوری شده و در مورد تنقس دیافراگمی است.

Diaphragmatic breathing

Diaphragmatic breathing, abdominal breathing, belly breathing or deep breathing is breathing that is done by contracting the diaphragm, a muscle located horizontally between the chest cavity and stomach cavity. Air enters the lungs and the belly expands during this type of breathing.

This deep breathing is marked by expansion of the abdomen rather than the chest when breathing. It is considered by some to be a healthier and fuller way to ingest oxygenHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaphragmatic_breathing" \l "cite_note-breatheproperly-0", and is sometimes used as a therapy for hyperventilation, anxiety disorders and stuttering.

 

How it is done

“Deep breathing involves slow and deep inhalation through the nose, usually to a count of 10, followed by slow and complete exhalation for a similar count. The process may be repeated 5 to 10 times, several times a day."

To breathe diaphragmatically, or with the diaphragm, one must draw air into the lungs in a way which will expand the stomach and not the chest. It is best to perform these breaths as long, slow intakes of air – allowing the body to absorb all of the inhaled oxygen while simultaneously relaxing the breather.

To do this comfortably, it is often best to loosen tight-fitting pants/belts/skirts (nude also works well), as these can interfere with the body's ability to intake air. While at first one may not feel comfortable expanding the stomach during breathing, diaphragmatic breathing actually fills up the majority of the lungs with oxygen – much more than chest-breathing or shallow breathing

 

A sample exercise

 diaphragmatic breathing exercise is as follows:

1.  Sit or lie comfortably, with loose garments.

2.   Put one hand on your chest and one on your stomach.

3.   Slowly inhale through your nose or through pursed lips (to slow down the intake of breath).

4.   As you inhale, push your belly/ stomach out and feel your stomach expand with your hand.

How it happens

The term 'diaphragmatic' is sometimes misinterpreted to imply that the thoracic diaphragm is not used in shallow breathing. This is a misunderstanding as the diaphragm is used in either case. In belly breathing, the lower ribs are stabilized and the central tendon of the diaphragm is mobilized so that a contraction of the diaphragm pulls the tendon down. In rib cage breathing, the central tendon is stabilized and the lower ribs are mobilized so that a contraction lifts the lower ribs.[

Due to the lung expansion being lower (inferior) on the body as opposed to higher up (superior), it is referred to as 'deep' and the higher lung expansion of rib cage breathing is referred to as 'shallow'. The actual volume of air taken into the lungs with either means varies. Attaining maximal lung expansion may require both diaphragmatic contraction as well as rib cage expansion, as the amount of room created by the abdominal depression or rib stretching may not create an adequate enough vacuum space on their own.

Many people tend to think of diaphragmatic breathing as something unique to singing; as a special skill that must be taught to them, rather than the body’s natural way of working. However, the fact of the matter is that we are born knowing how to breathe properly, and no one has to teach us how to do it when we come out of the womb. The tummies of sleeping babies rise and fall effortlessly, without any tension or movement in their chests and shoulders. The parts of their bodies that support their breathing work in effortless coordination and synchronicity. Even the breathing of adults is correct when they are relaxed or asleep and not actively trying to control it. The body naturally knows what to do and how to do it, even when our need for oxygen is greater due to increased physical activity or in response to boosts of adrenaline (as when we are frightened)

The fact that diaphragmatic breathing is both natural and ideal is why so much emphasis is placed on 'breathing from the diaphragm' while singing. Breathing in this natural way enables us to regulate our airflow, and is correct whether we are singing, exercising, speaking or watching television. 'Diaphragmatic breathing' is not just a trick or a specialized skill that singers must learn. It is a product of the natural functioning of the human body. In other words, it is how our bodies have been designed to take in and expel air. In breathing for singing, the mechanism of breathing is not an aberration from that of the breathing technique used by the body during other activities

Sources:
http://www.wikipedia.org/

http://www.singwise.com

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